As I sit at my grandmother’s oval-shaped wooden table, I feel a warm summer breeze through the open window. I ask her again how to pronounce iciyapi.
“Ee-chee-yah-pee,” she says in a slightly slower, but confident tone. I repeat the syllables in a much slower and deliberate voice. “Ee…chee…yah..pee.”
“Good my girl, that sounds good,” she says. She is teaching me how to properly introduce myself in our Lakota language, Lakȟótiyapi. I feel a deep sense of comfort knowing she has had this conversation before with dozens of young Lakota learners during her time as a Lakota language teacher in our community of Fort Yates on the Standing Rock Sioux reservation.
I recently reflected on this memory as I once again sat at that same wooden table. That time the windows were closed, as the harsh prairie winds of late fall blustered outside. My relatives and I were gathered around the oval table, but my unci, my grandmother, was missing. She had started her journey just a few days before, and we were discussing her funeral arrangements.
For many, grief has a way of forcing us to contemplate and reflect on cherished memories with the loved one who has left us. The loss of my unci, a lifelong educator, my namesake, and one of the most important teachers in my life, and in the lives of many others, has prompted me to think even more deeply about how important it is for Indigenous Knowledge Systems to be not only included, but honored and affirmed in classrooms.
Indigenous Knowledge Systems is a phrase that originated in Indigenous studies. I could describe it to you using academic terms such as epistemology, ontology, and axiology. But ultimately, Indigenous Knowledge Systems are the ways that Indigenous peoples make sense of the world around them, and how they recognize, value, share and use knowledge in their daily lives. The phrase is intentionally plural to honor the diversity of Indigenous nations, of which there are over 600 in the U.S. alone. Generally rooted in place-based knowledge, oral traditions and kinship, Indigenous Knowledge Systems reflect the unique experiences of each community, while sharing common traits.
Although I almost never used this academic phrase with my unci, we had many discussions about our own Lakota knowledge system and how Lakȟótiyapi was at the center of our knowledge, our culture and our way of life as Lakota people. In many of our conversations, we acknowledged how our ways greatly differed from the ways of knowing and learning found in mainstream education systems.
From a very young age, I recognized these differences. Having attended school off the reservation in a predominantly non-native community, I experienced first hand the differing value systems in school versus my community. This experience is common for many Indigenous students, but it wasn’t until I became a teacher myself that I was aware of how deeply these value systems impact our actions and choices as teachers and learners.
In contrast to the highly individualistic and competitive ways of learning we find in schools today, Indigenous Knowledge Systems often promote learning as a cooperative, holistic and experiential process that values relationality and the sustaining of the collective. For many Indigenous communities, the goal of education has always been to nurture the wellbeing of the whole child, including their emotional, mental, physical and spiritual development. The purpose of education was, and still is, to instill in future generations the skills and knowledge necessary to live a balanced life, a life where individuals can use their unique gifts to contribute to the wellbeing of their relatives, which includes not only immediate family members, but the entire community and the animals, plants, waterways and land with which we depend on for life itself.
After nearly two years of teaching, I realized many of the systems and practices I cultivated in my classroom were deeply rooted in my Indigenous knowledge as a Lakota woman. Take relationship building for example. Only recently has mainstream education research realized that without authentic relationships rooted in mutual respect and understanding, meaningful and long lasting learning is nearly impossible. But Indigenous communities have always understood its impact on knowledge transfer.
Indigenous ways of knowing and learning emphasize nurturing relationships not only with and among learners, but also with the larger community and the environment or place with which students spend time. All educators, whether they are Indigenous or not, can learn from these systems how to root their teaching and learning in community and place-based context.
In the past I have connected with people across the community who care about our children’s education—parents, grandparents, caregivers, community members and tribal education and culture departments. Because I work with Indigenous students from tribal nations that are not my own, I approach these partnerships with cultural humility and willingness to listen. After building relational trust, local community members share resources and context on local issues and history that I use to create lessons. In the end, these lessons often build on the unique strengths and experiences of the students in my class, and learning opportunities that are genuinely meaningful to them.
I’ve seen educators share power with community members by inviting them to talk about their expertise directly with students, or by taking learners to specific places within their community. Through these reciprocal partnerships, my students and I have explored interdisciplinary lessons about our relationships to water in our local area and the use of neighborhood mural art to portray community values and history.
All these lessons were intentionally designed to promote place-based learning—that is learning that allows students to explore the places within their own community through inquiry and experiential opportunities. Indigenous education has always rooted learning within the environment. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) refers to a vast and evolving body of knowledge garnered by Indigenous peoples over thousands of years of relationships with their environment. This empirical knowledge was and is passed down to future generations as a means of survival. Learners clearly saw how what they were learning was useful and relevant to their everyday lives because it was often taught through experiential and observational lessons with older relatives. When we co-design our instructional activities and materials with learners and community members, whether we realize it or not, we’re creating learning opportunities that honor and affirm Indigenous ways of knowing and being.
The irony of discussing Indigenous Knowledge Systems with my grandmother lies in the fact that she never got the chance to experience what it might feel like to have our Indigenous ways of knowing, learning, and being affirmed in mainstream education. She was a boarding school survivor and experienced a schooling that actively sought to destroy her Indigenous way of life.
Despite the abuse and cultural genocide she and countless other Indigenous students experienced in these schools, my unci never gave up her Lakȟótiyapi and the values embedded within that language. Even though she did not teach her children the language out of fear of making their lives more difficult, she always instilled in them the values of generosity, compassion and humility and embodied our Lakota way of life through her everyday actions.
Nearly two centuries after the implementation of the federal Indian Boarding School Policy, which continues to impact many people’s lives, it is time that we bring Indigenous ways of knowing and being into the center of mainstream education.
This story is part of an EdSurge Research series chronicling diverse educator experiences. These stories are made publicly available with support from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. EdSurge maintains editorial control over all content. (Read our ethics statement here.) This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.
Helen Thomas is the Office of Indian Education’s professional learning specialist for the Arizona Department of Education and a 2021-2022 EdSurge Voices of Change Fellow.
EdSurge reports on the people, ideas and tools shaping the future of learning.
© 2022 International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), All Rights Reserved
Carrots Have These 8 Amazing, Surprising Health Benefits
Initially, the vegetable originated in the geological area and the Asian United States, and it was initially only available in purple and yellow hues. Carrots are an excellent source of beta carotene, a natural mineral introduced by the body to provide sustenance, and they are high in fibre.
Carrots, which are crunchy, orange, and delicious, provide a variety of benefits to our health, pores, skin, and hair. These don’t appear to be particularly tasty, but they are loaded with numerous important nutrients, for example, beta-carotene, cell reinforcements, potassium, fibre, sustenance K, and so on.
Carrots are cultivated to promote eye health, lower dangerous LDL cholesterol, and aid in weight loss. Let’s put it to the test and find out why carrots are so good for you!
The following are twelve effective edges you might get from carrots:
1. Supports gadget
Most importantly, carrots contain a few phytochemicals that are well-known for their cancer-causing properties. Carotenoids and carotenoids are present in more than one of these associations. Overall, compounds create resistance and activate specific proteins that prevent the growth of most tumor cells. An investigation reveals on a screen that carrot juice can also fight leukemia.
2. Advances Glowing Skin
Investigate tips that stop outcome, and vegetables well off in those composites will finish pores and pores and skin ground and work with people’s appearances, thus making them more noteworthy young.
3. Fortifies Bones
Carrots are high in vitamins, minerals, and cancer-fighting agents. Vitamins B6 and K, potassium, phosphorous, and other minerals contribute to bone health, a more durable, and help with mental performance. Aside from selling the body to free extreme annihilation, cancer prevention agents keep an eye on the casing in the course of dangerous microbes, infections, and diseases. Physical cell digestion is managed by the ophthalmic component. Carotenoids have been linked to improved bone health.
4. Advances Male physiological circumstance (ED)
These fruitfulness meals may increase the number of sperm cells and their motility. According to research, this is a direct result of the fake carotenoids found in carrots, which are responsible for the vegetable’s orange color. However, it is still unknown whether carrots can improve sperm enjoyment and motility. Carrots are being tried to improve food for male physiological conditions and erectile dysfunction. Cenforce FM and Cenforce D can be used to treat impotency.
5. Keeps From Cancer and Stroke
Carrots have an unusual endowment in that they are loaded down with anti-cancer resources that will depress the cells’ blast. Essentially, studies have discovered that carrots can reduce the risk of a variety of diseases, including colon, breast, and prostate cancer.
6. Further develops the natural framework Health
Carrots contain a significant amount of dietary fibre, which plays an important role in supporting healthy stomach function. Fibre expands your stool, allowing it to pass more easily through the stomach-related plot and preventing stoppage.
7. Assists with managing polygenic affliction and basic sign
Carrots are high in fibre, which promotes cardiovascular health by lowering LDL cholesterol levels in veins and blood vessels. Calcium is absorbed through the frame of carrots, resulting in low but dangerous cholesterol levels.
Carrots have an unbalanced fibre content. An investigation found that advanced fibre consumption improves aldohexose digestion in people with the polygenic disorder. Following a healthy, well-balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Inconsistencies in glucose digestion may require a high level to combat aerophilic strain, and this is frequently where the inhibitor nutrients dilettanti ophthalmic thing axerophthol fats-solvent sustenance may also benefit.
According to one review, juice provided a 5 wrinkle inside the beat fundamental sign. The supplements in carrot juice, with fibre, K, nitrates, and vitamin C, have all been obtained to help this final product.
8. Advances Healthy Heart
To begin with, each cancer prevention agent is beneficial to your coronary heart. Furthermore, at 0.33, they should contain fibre, which can help you stay in shape and lower your chances of having a heart attack.
9. Forestalls devolution
Edges that are hostile to ophthalmic detail ensure the floor of the eye and provide a sharp inventiveness and perception. Taking juice will help to delay many eye diseases, such as macular degeneration, cataracts, and visual impairment. Overall, carrots contain lutein, which is an inhibitor that protects the eye from obliterating light.
10. Works on urinary organ and Liver perform
Carrots contain glutathione. Cell reinforcement has been shown to be effective in treating liver disease caused by aerophilic strains. The greens are high in plant flavonoids and beta-carotene, both of which stimulate and develop your popular liver component. Carrots contain carotenoid, which can help fight liver problems.
11. Palatable Anti-Aging
Along with carrots on your regular food, you will appreciate limiting the way you get more seasoned. Furthermore, beta-carotene functions as an inhibitor that advances cell harm, which happens as a result of the casing’s normal digestion.
12. Advances Weight Loss
Uncooked Carrots are 88% water when raw or ebb and flow. A regular carrot has the lowest difficulty level of 25 energy. Taking everything into consideration, including carrots in your diet is a wise way to fuel yourself while collecting calories.