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Lack of high school education predicts vaccine hesitancy – CIDRAP



University of Minnesota. Driven to Discover.
A lack of a high school education was the most important predictor of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in 3,142 US counties, finds a study yesterday in the American Journal of Infection Control.
And a research letter yesterday in JAMA Internal Medicine shows that 15 state lottery-based incentive programs didn’t significantly increase vaccination rates compared with 31 states without such programs.
In the first study, a team led by University of North Carolina researchers mined county-level databases on COVID-19 vaccination rate and hesitancy and determined population characteristics based on those in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Social Vulnerability Index.
Vaccine uptake was defined as receipt of a full regimen of the COVID-19 vaccine, and hesitancy was defined as refusal to be vaccinated against COVID-19 even if the vaccine was available.
As of May 9, 2021, the average COVID-19 vaccination rate was 34.7%, while 8% reported strong unwillingness to be vaccinated.
Refusal to get the vaccine was significantly and negatively correlated with vaccine uptake, and the predictors of low vaccination rates in highly vaccine-hesitant communities included a lack of a high school education (odds ratio [OR], 0.70) and concern about vaccine availability and distribution (OR, 0.00).
Characteristics of vaccine-hesitant individuals included racial minority status, age older than 65 years, households with children younger than 18 years, and unemployment. Vaccine access was not cited as a reason for hesitancy.
Of all reasons cited for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, a lack of trust in the vaccines (55%) was the most common, followed by worries about side effects (48%) and low trust in the government (46%).
Five of the 10 most common reasons given for vaccine hesitancy were related to a lack of knowledge about potential side effects, benefits, effectiveness, and risks of being unvaccinated.
The study authors noted that COVID-19 vaccination not only reduces rates of infection and death; it can also lower healthcare costs by reducing emergency department visits, lower work absenteeism, and promote health equity through free vaccines distributed to the public.
The results, the authors said, indicate that lack of education, including gaps in knowledge about the vaccine, and poor infrastructure are ongoing barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake.
“Since we suspect that many of the dimensions of capacity…have been addressed in recent months, determining a strategy for decreasing hesitancy among less well-educated citizens appears to be the top challenge,” the researchers concluded. “Since education levels are not easily modifiable, our results suggest that policymakers would be best served by closing knowledge gaps to overcome negative perceptions of the vaccine through tailored interventions.”
In the second study, Boston University scientists evaluated CDC data on 15 US states that announced lottery-based cash incentives to receive the COVID-19 vaccine from May 24 to Jul 19, 2021. Using CDC data, they estimated immediate changes in vaccination rates, trends, and differences in vaccine uptake between lottery and non-lottery states after incentive announcements.
COVID-19 vaccination rates decreased before lottery announcements (-2.8 vaccinations per 100,000 people per day) and did not significantly rise after the announcements (-0.4). Likewise, vaccination trends didn’t change significantly (0.7) relative to the prelottery period.
Before lottery announcements, vaccination trends were similar in lottery and nonlottery states (-0.5 vaccinations per 100,000 people per day), and vaccination levels remained about the same after the announcements (1.1), as did the vaccination rate difference (0.4).
Sensitivity analyses of state-reported data from four states with lotteries and states as fixed effects produced comparable results, and a sensitivity analysis of states with more than 3 weeks of data from before the lottery found similar vaccination levels and a marginally significant increase in trend after the announcements.
The primary analysis, which included all states, estimated the cumulative difference in vaccines given during the 28 days after the lottery in lottery states relative to expected adoption was 190 vaccines per 100,000 people. A sensitivity analysis of states with less than 3 weeks of prelottery data estimated a change in vaccinations of 1,092 per 100,000.
“This study did not find evidence that vaccine lottery incentive programs in the US were associated with significantly increased rates of COVID-19 vaccinations,” the authors wrote. “Given the lack of a strong association between state lottery-based vaccine incentives and increased vaccination rates, further studies of strategies to increase vaccination rates are needed.”
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TOP 4 Essay Writing Services in the USA: 2023 Edition



essay writing services reddit

As an increasing number of students seek assistance with their academic assignments, the demand for reliable essay writing services continues to grow. With so many options available, it can be challenging to identify the best service providers. To help you make an informed decision, we have compiled a list of the top 4 essay writing services in the USA for 2023. These services have been carefully evaluated based on their reputation, quality of work, customer satisfaction, and affordability. Read on to discover the top essay writing services that can provide you with the support you need to excel in your academic journey.

essay writing services reddit

essay writing services reddit

What Makes a Great Essay Writing Service

Before delving into the top essay writing services reddit, it’s essential to understand the criteria we used to evaluate them. A great essay-writing service should possess the following qualities:

  • Quality of Work: The service should deliver well-researched, original, and high-quality essays that meet academic standards.
  • Professional Writers: The service should have a team of qualified writers with expertise in various subjects who can handle diverse topics.
  • Timely Delivery: The service should be reliable and capable of delivering essays within the given deadline.
  • Customer Support: The service should provide excellent customer support, ensuring effective communication throughout the writing process.
  • Affordability: The service should offer reasonable pricing plans that are affordable for students while maintaining the quality of work.

Now, let’s explore the top 4 essay writing services in the USA for 2023.

TOP 4 Essay Writing Services in the USA: 2023 Edition

2.1 EssayPro

EssayPro is a highly reputable essay writing service known for its commitment to quality and customer satisfaction. They have a diverse team of experienced writers who can handle a wide range of subjects. EssayPro offers a user-friendly platform, allowing students to place orders easily and track the progress of their essays. Their pricing is competitive, and they offer additional features such as plagiarism reports and unlimited revisions.

2.2 Grademiners

Grademiners is a popular choice among students due to its excellent track record and reliability. They have a team of highly skilled writers who are proficient in various academic disciplines. Grademiners ensures on-time delivery and provides 24/7 customer support to address any concerns. They also offer free revisions and a money-back guarantee, ensuring customer satisfaction.

2.3 Ultius

Ultius is known for its exceptional writing services and commitment to customer privacy and security. They have a rigorous writer selection process, ensuring that only qualified professionals handle the essays. Ultius offers a wide range of writing services, including essay writing, editing, and proofreading. They also provide a mobile app for convenient communication and order tracking.

2.4 EduBirdie

EduBirdie is a trusted essay writing service that offers a unique feature called “choose your own writer.” Students can browse through profiles and select a writer who matches their requirements. This personalized approach allows for effective collaboration and ensures that the final essay meets the student’s expectations. EduBirdie also provides 24/7 customer support and guarantees 100% original and plagiarism-free content.

How We Evaluated the Services

To evaluate the essay writing services, we considered several factors, including:

  • Reputation and reliability
  • Quality of work and adherence to academic standards
  • Customer reviews and satisfaction
  • Pricing and affordability
  • Additional features and guarantees
  • Customer support and communication

By carefully analyzing these aspects, we identified the top 4 essay writing services that offer outstanding support to students.


Choosing a reliable essay writing service is crucial for students seeking academic assistance. The top 4 essay writing services mentioned in this article – EssayPro, Grademiners, Ultius, and EduBirdie – have proven their worth in terms of quality, reliability, and customer satisfaction. Whether you need help with an essay, research paper, or any other academic assignment, these services can provide you with the support you need to succeed in your studies.

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