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Shift to US-style higher education in Bavaria – Inside Higher Ed



More stratification and fees for international students are expected.
Advocates of a new Bavarian law that could usher in more U.S.-style stratification of universities and allow institutions to charge international students fees hope that the rest of Germany will soon follow suit.
The changes are being personally championed by Markus Söder, Bavaria’s conservative state premier and one of the frontrunners to succeed Angela Merkel as chancellor. He has urged rectors to embrace “more freedom” and strengthen the “innovation potential” of universities.
Wolfgang Herrmann, former president of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and one of the key players pushing for the new law, hoped that the state would become a “role model” for the rest of Germany. “If Bavaria gets a modern university law, I’m sure other states will come along,” he said.
The reforms in Bavaria, Germany’s second richest state and home to industrial titans including BMW, Siemens and Audi, would mark a clear break with Germany’s existing higher education system.
Despite efforts to create an “elite” tier of “excellent” institutions in Germany, there are still not the sharp hierarchies of prestige — and fierce competition for places — present in the U.S. and Britain. Institutions are overwhelmingly funded by the state, and academic freedom of teaching and research is guaranteed by the constitution.
Under the changes, universities would be free to adopt a legal form with more independence from the state and rearrange their internal organization.
They would remain state funded, but budgets would come with more targets attached. The “transfer” of knowledge to the wider economy and society would be defined as one of their key missions, alongside teaching and research.
In practice, the changes would allow universities flexibility to tempt scholars from overseas with big salaries and take on building projects themselves, said Herrmann, who led TUM for 25 years before stepping down last year. “It’s inspired by the entrepreneurial spirit,” he said of the new law.
Herrmann saw it as pushing Bavaria toward a system of stratified universities, like in the U.S. or Britain, with tougher competition for entry to top universities. “I see the beneficial effects of competition,” he said.
Under the law, Bavarian universities would also be allowed to charge non-European Union students, another major policy departure in a country where fees are almost nonexistent and politically controversial.
“This money can be taken for construction projects or financing of start-ups or other activities, which they could not do before,” explained Tobias Plessing, chairman of the board at the Association of Lecturers at Bavarian Universities of Applied Sciences.
The proposed changes, however, have provoked a backlash from some politicians and academics. Nicole Gohlke, an MP from the left-wing party Die Linke, tweeted that the reforms would “open the door” of universities to corporations.
Max-Emanuel Geis, a law professor at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, warned that the reform could face challenges over its potential conflict with Germany’s legal protection of research and academic teaching.
“This new bill will strengthen the university management and weaken the rights of academics, especially of those who represent subjects that aren’t suitable for [economic] added value. Take the ancient historian, the hieroglyph researcher or the dogmatics theologian: they all can be disadvantaged in terms of distribution of resources or of receiving salary allowances,” Geis said.
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TOP 4 Essay Writing Services in the USA: 2023 Edition



essay writing services reddit

As an increasing number of students seek assistance with their academic assignments, the demand for reliable essay writing services continues to grow. With so many options available, it can be challenging to identify the best service providers. To help you make an informed decision, we have compiled a list of the top 4 essay writing services in the USA for 2023. These services have been carefully evaluated based on their reputation, quality of work, customer satisfaction, and affordability. Read on to discover the top essay writing services that can provide you with the support you need to excel in your academic journey.

essay writing services reddit

essay writing services reddit

What Makes a Great Essay Writing Service

Before delving into the top essay writing services reddit, it’s essential to understand the criteria we used to evaluate them. A great essay-writing service should possess the following qualities:

  • Quality of Work: The service should deliver well-researched, original, and high-quality essays that meet academic standards.
  • Professional Writers: The service should have a team of qualified writers with expertise in various subjects who can handle diverse topics.
  • Timely Delivery: The service should be reliable and capable of delivering essays within the given deadline.
  • Customer Support: The service should provide excellent customer support, ensuring effective communication throughout the writing process.
  • Affordability: The service should offer reasonable pricing plans that are affordable for students while maintaining the quality of work.

Now, let’s explore the top 4 essay writing services in the USA for 2023.

TOP 4 Essay Writing Services in the USA: 2023 Edition

2.1 EssayPro

EssayPro is a highly reputable essay writing service known for its commitment to quality and customer satisfaction. They have a diverse team of experienced writers who can handle a wide range of subjects. EssayPro offers a user-friendly platform, allowing students to place orders easily and track the progress of their essays. Their pricing is competitive, and they offer additional features such as plagiarism reports and unlimited revisions.

2.2 Grademiners

Grademiners is a popular choice among students due to its excellent track record and reliability. They have a team of highly skilled writers who are proficient in various academic disciplines. Grademiners ensures on-time delivery and provides 24/7 customer support to address any concerns. They also offer free revisions and a money-back guarantee, ensuring customer satisfaction.

2.3 Ultius

Ultius is known for its exceptional writing services and commitment to customer privacy and security. They have a rigorous writer selection process, ensuring that only qualified professionals handle the essays. Ultius offers a wide range of writing services, including essay writing, editing, and proofreading. They also provide a mobile app for convenient communication and order tracking.

2.4 EduBirdie

EduBirdie is a trusted essay writing service that offers a unique feature called “choose your own writer.” Students can browse through profiles and select a writer who matches their requirements. This personalized approach allows for effective collaboration and ensures that the final essay meets the student’s expectations. EduBirdie also provides 24/7 customer support and guarantees 100% original and plagiarism-free content.

How We Evaluated the Services

To evaluate the essay writing services, we considered several factors, including:

  • Reputation and reliability
  • Quality of work and adherence to academic standards
  • Customer reviews and satisfaction
  • Pricing and affordability
  • Additional features and guarantees
  • Customer support and communication

By carefully analyzing these aspects, we identified the top 4 essay writing services that offer outstanding support to students.


Choosing a reliable essay writing service is crucial for students seeking academic assistance. The top 4 essay writing services mentioned in this article – EssayPro, Grademiners, Ultius, and EduBirdie – have proven their worth in terms of quality, reliability, and customer satisfaction. Whether you need help with an essay, research paper, or any other academic assignment, these services can provide you with the support you need to succeed in your studies.

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