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Shift to US-style higher education in Bavaria – Inside Higher Ed



More stratification and fees for international students are expected.
Advocates of a new Bavarian law that could usher in more U.S.-style stratification of universities and allow institutions to charge international students fees hope that the rest of Germany will soon follow suit.
The changes are being personally championed by Markus Söder, Bavaria’s conservative state premier and one of the frontrunners to succeed Angela Merkel as chancellor. He has urged rectors to embrace “more freedom” and strengthen the “innovation potential” of universities.
Wolfgang Herrmann, former president of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and one of the key players pushing for the new law, hoped that the state would become a “role model” for the rest of Germany. “If Bavaria gets a modern university law, I’m sure other states will come along,” he said.
The reforms in Bavaria, Germany’s second richest state and home to industrial titans including BMW, Siemens and Audi, would mark a clear break with Germany’s existing higher education system.
Despite efforts to create an “elite” tier of “excellent” institutions in Germany, there are still not the sharp hierarchies of prestige — and fierce competition for places — present in the U.S. and Britain. Institutions are overwhelmingly funded by the state, and academic freedom of teaching and research is guaranteed by the constitution.
Under the changes, universities would be free to adopt a legal form with more independence from the state and rearrange their internal organization.
They would remain state funded, but budgets would come with more targets attached. The “transfer” of knowledge to the wider economy and society would be defined as one of their key missions, alongside teaching and research.
In practice, the changes would allow universities flexibility to tempt scholars from overseas with big salaries and take on building projects themselves, said Herrmann, who led TUM for 25 years before stepping down last year. “It’s inspired by the entrepreneurial spirit,” he said of the new law.
Herrmann saw it as pushing Bavaria toward a system of stratified universities, like in the U.S. or Britain, with tougher competition for entry to top universities. “I see the beneficial effects of competition,” he said.
Under the law, Bavarian universities would also be allowed to charge non-European Union students, another major policy departure in a country where fees are almost nonexistent and politically controversial.
“This money can be taken for construction projects or financing of start-ups or other activities, which they could not do before,” explained Tobias Plessing, chairman of the board at the Association of Lecturers at Bavarian Universities of Applied Sciences.
The proposed changes, however, have provoked a backlash from some politicians and academics. Nicole Gohlke, an MP from the left-wing party Die Linke, tweeted that the reforms would “open the door” of universities to corporations.
Max-Emanuel Geis, a law professor at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, warned that the reform could face challenges over its potential conflict with Germany’s legal protection of research and academic teaching.
“This new bill will strengthen the university management and weaken the rights of academics, especially of those who represent subjects that aren’t suitable for [economic] added value. Take the ancient historian, the hieroglyph researcher or the dogmatics theologian: they all can be disadvantaged in terms of distribution of resources or of receiving salary allowances,” Geis said.
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Realm Scans: Navigating the Uncharted Territories of Digital Discovery



In the expansive landscape of digital exploration, there exists a realm where information becomes an adventure—Realm Scans. Beyond a mere scanning service, this digital haven is where curiosity converges with innovation, and the uncharted territories of digital discovery come to life. Join us as we embark on a journey to unravel the unique dynamics of Realm Scans, navigating through the realms where information is not just scanned but transformed into a digital odyssey.

“Digital Horizons: Exploring the Essence of Realm Scans” is not just a title; it’s an exploration into the multifaceted dimensions of a scanning service that transcends the mundane. This article is an invitation to delve into the layers of technological prowess, user-centric design, and the transformative impact that defines Realm Scans in the dynamic world of digital information.

At the core of Realm Scans lies a commitment to redefining how we interact with information. “Digital Horizons” delves into the innovative features and functionalities that make Realm Scans more than just a scanning service. It’s a digital gateway where documents become gateways to exploration, and information is a portal to new discoveries.

A standout feature is the user-centric approach that defines the Realm Scans experience. “Digital Horizons” explores how user interface design, accessibility, and intuitive navigation are seamlessly integrated to create an environment where users don’t just scan documents—they embark on a digital journey of discovery.

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As we navigate through the digital horizons of Realm Scans, the article becomes a celebration of the fusion between technology and user experience. It is a recognition that in the world of digital services, there are realms where functionality meets innovation, and where information is a gateway to new digital frontiers.

“Digital Horizons: Exploring the Essence of Realm Scans” is not just an article; it’s an ode to the tech enthusiasts, the information seekers, and the digital explorers who recognize the profound impact of a scanning service that goes beyond the surface. It’s an acknowledgment that in the realms of digital discovery, Realm Scans stands as a beacon, inviting users to embrace the transformative power of information in the digital age.

As Realm Scans continues to redefine the digital scanning landscape, “Digital Horizons” invites us to appreciate the nuances of a service that transforms the ordinary into the extraordinary—an exploration where every scan is not just a document but a digital adventure waiting to be unfolded.

Harry Clam

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