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Spending Just a Few Years in Montessori Education Predicts Well-Being in Adulthood – University of Virginia

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Be it in preschool or beyond, new research from the University of Virginia has found that people who had at least two years of Montessori education report a sense of well-being in adulthood.
The UVA research team, led by psychology professor Angeline Lillard, looked at data from nearly 2,000 people who were from the United States or Canada and between the ages of 18 and 81. About half the sample had attended conventional schools and the rest had attended Montessori schools. The group filled out a large set of well-being scales and also provided demographic information that included the type of school they attended each year from the age of 2 to 17.
“We found that the ones who had gone to Montessori for at least two years had significantly higher adult well-being than the ones who never had,” Lillard said. “It’s not an enormous difference, but it was highly significant. When you think of it across the whole population, small effects add up and could be meaningful.”
Montessori schools were developed more than 100 years ago by Italian physician Maria Montessori. The first American Montessori school opened in 1913. Educators would watch children and take note of when they appeared to flourish, then experimentally adjusted the circumstances in the classroom, as opposed to conventional education in which nearly all of the student body studies the same curriculum.
“In Montessori school, there are three-year age groupings. There is a specific set of materials, and children have a lot of self-determination,” Lillard said. “So they go into the classroom in the morning and they choose what they’re going to work on.
“It’s based on the reasoning that the natural human tendency is to want to learn, to want to develop oneself in the same way that children naturally learn to walk and they naturally learn to talk.”
Lillard said it is too early to say that the relationship between Montessori education and adult well-being is causal, or if other variables might be in play. “That’s the first thing that comes to a good scientific mind and we don’t know because this is an association study,” she said.
However, Lillard said the research group believes there are a lot of theoretical reasons to think the link between Montessori education and adult well-being might be causal. “For example, we ruled out that it’s parents who choose private schools for their children. Some of the Montessori sample had gone to public school. But we looked at the sub-sample that had only gone to private Montessori or private conventional schools and we saw [the result] even among that group,” she said.
“The fact that Montessori has features that are associated with well-being; the fact that random lottery studies have shown that children are started on a trajectory that, if that trajectory were to continue, you would expect to lead to higher well-being; those things, together with our analysis, make us think it’s possible that this is causal.”
The well-being surveys asked respondents to rank on a range of one to seven how much they agreed or disagreed with a group of statements. Examples include things like, “I judge myself by what I think is important, not by the values of what others think is important,” and “I like most parts of my personality.”
Lillard said she was surprised to see so many people report well-being in adulthood after just two years of Montessori education, which is most common in the 3- to 6-year-old range. She said it was also interesting to see such reported impact from something that occurred so early in childhood.
The study, “An Association Between Montessori Education in Childhood and Adult Well-being,” was recently published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

Jane Kelly
Office of University Communications
(434) 243-9935
January 12, 2022
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Realm Scans: Navigating the Uncharted Territories of Digital Discovery

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In the expansive landscape of digital exploration, there exists a realm where information becomes an adventure—Realm Scans. Beyond a mere scanning service, this digital haven is where curiosity converges with innovation, and the uncharted territories of digital discovery come to life. Join us as we embark on a journey to unravel the unique dynamics of Realm Scans, navigating through the realms where information is not just scanned but transformed into a digital odyssey.

“Digital Horizons: Exploring the Essence of Realm Scans” is not just a title; it’s an exploration into the multifaceted dimensions of a scanning service that transcends the mundane. This article is an invitation to delve into the layers of technological prowess, user-centric design, and the transformative impact that defines Realm Scans in the dynamic world of digital information.

At the core of Realm Scans lies a commitment to redefining how we interact with information. “Digital Horizons” delves into the innovative features and functionalities that make Realm Scans more than just a scanning service. It’s a digital gateway where documents become gateways to exploration, and information is a portal to new discoveries.

A standout feature is the user-centric approach that defines the Realm Scans experience. “Digital Horizons” explores how user interface design, accessibility, and intuitive navigation are seamlessly integrated to create an environment where users don’t just scan documents—they embark on a digital journey of discovery.

Realm Scans is not confined by the traditional boundaries of scanning; it is a catalyst for a digital revolution. “Digital Horizons” illustrates how Realm Scans empowers users to go beyond the expected, transforming the act of scanning into a dynamic and enriching experience that transcends conventional notions.

As we navigate through the digital horizons of Realm Scans, the article becomes a celebration of the fusion between technology and user experience. It is a recognition that in the world of digital services, there are realms where functionality meets innovation, and where information is a gateway to new digital frontiers.

“Digital Horizons: Exploring the Essence of Realm Scans” is not just an article; it’s an ode to the tech enthusiasts, the information seekers, and the digital explorers who recognize the profound impact of a scanning service that goes beyond the surface. It’s an acknowledgment that in the realms of digital discovery, Realm Scans stands as a beacon, inviting users to embrace the transformative power of information in the digital age.

As Realm Scans continues to redefine the digital scanning landscape, “Digital Horizons” invites us to appreciate the nuances of a service that transforms the ordinary into the extraordinary—an exploration where every scan is not just a document but a digital adventure waiting to be unfolded.

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