Digital twin (DT) technology is making significant research inroads into several technologies. DT technology has significant potential for another key 21st-century technology, electric vehicles. A paper published in Sustainability has explored the use of digital twins in this important industrial sector.
Study: Overview on Digital Twin for Autonomous Electrical Vehicles Propulsion Drive System. Image Credit: buffaloboy/Shutterstock.com
Since the concept was developed around 20 years ago, a number of researchers and institutions have defined digital twins and sought to develop effective software systems based upon them. In essence, a digital twin is a replica of a real-world object (its “twin”) and in addition to the physical assets of the twin, a digital twin can be used to replicate processes. By using them in this manner, data can be collected to provide a predictive analysis of performance.
Digital twins can be constructed for physical objects from vehicle and airplane engines to wind farms, buildings, and even entire cities. IoT devices, software analytics tools, machine learning, big data, and AI can be integrated into a digital twin to improve its operation and output. Digital twins are rapidly becoming a key technology in engineering in the 21st century. Digital twins can run any number of simulations on every parameter and process in a physical asset.
A simple way to explain what a digital twin looks like is a wind turbine that has various sensors attached to different working parts and vital areas. The sensors gather data about factors such as wind speed, atmospheric conditions, temperature, energy output, and so forth which are then fed back to a central processing system. This real-world information is then applied to the digital twin.
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) System. Image Credit: Ibrahim, M et al., Sustainability
The data gathered is used to run simulations, analyze performance issues, and provide insights that can help improve the performance of the real-world object. A digital twin can be used to analyze valuable health status and maintenance data throughout the entire lifetime of a physical asset. A key difference between DTs and Hardware-in-the-loop simulations is that the DT is a purely virtual simulation model which is provided with real-life inputs and outputs to determine how well a physical asset is working.
There are several types of digital twins which are classified according to the level of product magnification, and they differ according to their area of application. The different types of digital twins are component twins/part twins, asset twins, system/unit twins, and process twins. Digital twins are favorable for engineering applications as they are low-cost and low-risk.
Digital Twin (DT) system. Image Credit: Ibrahim, M et al., Sustainability
The growth in electric vehicle development has been promoted by the urgent need to reduce carbon emissions in the automotive industry. Digital twins have been extensively explored in fields such as biomedical research and the aerospace industry, and due to their potential, they are being increasingly employed in the research and development of electric vehicles. Like any technology, electric vehicles have parts that must be monitored for performance issues and to provide operational improvements.
Developing a new car model is a lengthy process, typically taking up to five or six years from design to market launch. Effective design is key to the long-term success of a new vehicle, and digital twins provide a means to virtually model the component and, additionally, the design and development process at all stages.
Digital Twin applications map. Image Credit: Ibrahim, M et al., Sustainability
Electric vehicles are still a relatively new technology, but the growth in their global demand has facilitated the urgent need for the design of high-performance parts. It is predicted that they will represent an 80% of the share of the global automotive industry by 2050. One of the critical components that affect their performance is the propulsion drive system, and though this can benefit from digital twin technology, there is a lack of studies concerning EV propulsion systems.
Digital twins are frequently used for applications such as diagnostics, prognostics, system health monitoring, and risk assessment in electric vehicle drive applications. The paper published in Sustainability has provided an overview of the use of DT technology in the propulsion drive systems of electric vehicles.
Electrical Vehicle (EV) drive system components. Image Credit: Ibrahim, M et al., Sustainability
The authors have conducted an extensive review of current studies on the use of digital twin technology in this area. Additionally, the authors have provided a comparison between different simulation technologies currently available. Finally, they have identified several routes for technological development that will inform future research directions. In conclusion, the study has found significant potential for digital twin use in electric vehicle design, and as such, the paper serves as a vital resource for this field.
Ibrahim, M et al. (2022) Overview on Digital Twin for Autonomous Electrical Vehicles Propulsion Drive System [online] Sustainability 14(2) 601 | mdpi.com. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/2/601
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Reg Davey is a freelance copywriter and editor based in Nottingham in the United Kingdom. Writing for News Medical represents the coming together of various interests and fields he has been interested and involved in over the years, including Microbiology, Biomedical Sciences, and Environmental Science.
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What is an Ultrasound Tech Salary?
The job of an ultrasound technician can be a thrilling one. It is a promising career with high pay and advantages. A lot of technician schools offer training programs for the area. If you take the time to obtain a degree or certificate in the ultrasound field, you’ll be able to earn an income worth the effort and time.
HOW MUCH DOES AN ULTRASOUND TECHNICIAN MAKE
Ultrasound salary rates are far more competitive than the majority of the positions in allied health. Some markets pay over $65,000 in this position. An ultrasound technician can expect to earn a median annual pay of $63,640 for diagnostic medical Sonographers as of May 2009, as per the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The salary may vary based on the kind of job setting. For instance, the median annual income in 2009 for employees working in doctor’s offices was $63,820. For hospital workers, it was $63,770. The salaries can also differ according to state and clearly by country. Similar to other occupations, ultrasound wages are less for entry-level employees and higher for those in higher-paying posts. If you earn greater than $65,000 per year and 55 percent are over 50, as well as 22 percent are under 30, According to the Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography.
GET REGISTERED AND MAKE MORE MONEY
Technicians can expect less money even if they’re not certified by the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS). However, the bottom 10% of technicians earn the least money, equivalent to $ 43,990 a year, and the higher 10% earn $85,950 yearly. Pay is also contingent on the number of specificities the technician holds. The more specialties the technician has, the more lucrative the salary. Employer, certification/education, or background may also affect the ultrasound salary. Hospital employees make $63,770 a year.
Doctors employ the second highest number of ultrasound techs in their clinics, and 13,290 technicians earn $63,820 annually. Diagnostic and medical labs use the third highest number of technicians, i.e., approximately 4,680. They pay each one $61,820 of them each year. Schools that teach pay roughly $66,000.
WHERE DO YOU LIVE
Furthermore, geographic locations are also a significant factor in determining how much pay a technician can earn. For example, Massachusetts has the highest ultrasound technician’s salary, around $78,460 annually. Oregon is almost identical, with a salary of $78,320. Colorado is third with approximately $77,380 annually. The need for technicians is huge in not developed states, while jobs have attained a saturation point in more developed states.
If a technician wishes to make the most money, it is recommended that they join those firms that offer employment services. They could earn as much as $68,000 or more annually. Enterprises and management companies offer the second highest pay, $67,890 per annum. Outpatient centers earn $64,560 annually, while educational schools have a salary of approximately $66,000. The structure of wages is also influenced by the environment in which the technician works, the workload the technician is responsible for on their own, and the company’s size. Experience in the field is significant to the average salary.