If you have been injured by a healthcare professional including a doctor, dentist, nurse or technician in a surgery, hospital or clinic in UK you should speak to medical negligence solicitor who will normally give free initial advice and information on how best to preserve your legal right to receive compensation as a result of injuries. Most UK Medical Negligence lawyers operate using a contingency scheme (no win no fee) and you will not have to fund or finance your compensation claim in any respect.
If your medical negligence solicitors are not successful you pay nothing at all. You have nothing to lose in taking up a lawyers offer of free advice and there is usually no further obligation should you decide not to pursue a claim further. Most medical negligence solicitors offer a true professional risk-free service and you should only ever deal with a qualified, specialist.
Erb’s palsy is also called Erb-Duchenne palsy; it is a paralysis of the arm caused by an injury to the brachial plexus, a collection of nerves that exit the neck, mix and match into a plexus, and go out to the arm. The main nerves involved in Erb’s palsy are C5 and C6. These comprise the ventral rami of the spinal nerves C5 to C8 as well as the thoracic nerve T1.
The injury (paralysis) comes from shoulder dystocia in a difficult birth. Shoulder dystocia usually comes when an infant is large, and the head is able to exit the birth canal but the shoulders get stuck. In order to get the shoulders out, the doctor can put too much traction on the infant’s head, stretching the neck and doing damage to the nerves of the brachial plexus. Depending on the type of damage, the paralysis can resolve spontaneously over a few months, might require physical therapy to get better or might require surgery. Some cases of shoulder dystocia happen during a breech delivery when everything but the head is out and pressure is put on the neck to get the head out. It can also affect an infant who suffers from a clavicle fracture at birth that is unrelated to dystocia.
A related injury can be seen at any age when there is a trauma to the head and shoulders that causes the nerves of the brachial plexus to stretch violently, resulting in a form of Erb’s palsy unrelated to shoulder dystocia or infancy. Gunshot wounds or violent traction on the arm can result in paralysis of the arm.
The paralysis in Erb’s palsy can be partial or complete and the damage to each nerve can be as simple as bruising to the nerve or as bad as avulsion of the nerve from the spinal cord. The damage is most likely to the nerve root C5 and one can refer to the union of C5 and C6 nerve roots as “Erb’s point”. This point is the furthest point from the force of traction and is, therefore, the first area affected. Erb’s palsy is a lower motor nerve syndrome so the muscles are weak and there is sensibility disturbance of the affected arm.
The nerves most commonly affected in Erb’s palsy are the musculocutaneous nerve, the suprascapular nerve, and the axillary nerve.
The signs and symptoms of Erb’s palsy include a lack of sensation in the affected arm and atrophy and paralysis of the deltoid muscle, the biceps, and the brachialis muscles. The limb often hangs to the side and is rotated medially with an extended forearm and pronated forearm. Flexion power in the elbow is lost and one can’t supinate the forearm. The arm cannot be raised from its side position. Of all muscles, the biceps muscle causes the greatest problems to the arm.
Whenever the injury occurs as an infant or neonate, it affects muscle development and the limb ends up with stunted growth with all aspects of the arm, including the shoulder and the fingers. The arm is much weaker than the one which is unaffected and nervous and circulatory development is diminished. Many develop contracture of the elbow and cannot raise their arm above the level of the shoulder without help.
The poor development of the circulatory system means that the arm has no ability to regulate its temperature, which is a difficult problem during the winter months as the arm can freeze if not protected against the cold. Healing is reduced in the affected limb and infections are possible if wounds are not protected against infection.
The nerve damage is often the most difficult problem of all. Some patients with Erb’s palsy have no sensation whatsoever of the affected limb while others have full sensory perception. The area most commonly affected by sensory loss is the area between the elbow and the shoulder; these are the first nerves damaged by the initial insult.
The appearance of the arm depends on what nerves are involved. Some situations will have the arm unable to straighten or rotate the arm and the arm will feel stiff and crooked. In other cases, the arm will be loose, and the patient will have little control over the arm. Physical therapy and massage can prevent these unusual appearances and can improve function.
In certain cases, the patient may feel a great deal of pain. There may be cramping pain that may be worse if they have slept on the shoulder. It doesn’t affect all patients with Erb’s palsy, but it can be extremely painful to those who have the problem. Patients can even faint or be sick from severe pain. It usually happens in the latter stages of growth but eventually fades with time.
Treatment of Erb’s palsy is sometimes unnecessary as the infant regains normal function on their own; others need intervention by a specialist. A pediatric surgeon is necessary for avulsion fracture repair. If the repair works well, the lesions will heal, and the function will normalize. Even so, physical therapy is required to strengthen the arm, prevent contractures and maximize sensation. If the child has not regained function after one year, he or she is unlikely to regain any further function without help. Some quickly develop arthritis in the affected extremity.
There are three common surgical treatments for Erb’s palsy including nerve transplants from the opposite limb, subscapularis releases, and latissimus dorsi tendon transfers. Nerve transplants are often done on patients who are younger than age 9 months because the procedure is more successful at that age. Subscapularis releases can be done at any time. A “Z” shaped cut is made into the muscle so that it is able to stretch more.
It can be done repeatedly until the desired effect is achieved. In a latissimus dorsi tendon transfer, the latissimus dorsi muscle is cut in half horizontally so that parts of the muscle is pulled around to attach to the outside of the biceps muscle. It provides some degree of external rotation to the arm if it works at all. There will be increased sensitivity of the biceps because the latissimus dorsi has twice the number of nerve endings as the biceps.
Tips for Dental Implant Failure Prevention
The advancement of dentistry has revolutionised the way dental treatments used to be conducted and the dental implants are one of the most avant-garde offerings of the same.
The dental implants are tools that are used for the restoration of the teeth. These tools match the look and feel of the original teeth almost exactly and they are said to be of the highest-quality, healthiest and the most realistic process of teeth replacement for the damaged and lost teeth.
In fact, the dental implants are so durable that if cared for properly they can last a lifetime. However, there are a number of factors that actually influence the success and the failure of the implants.
The dental implant fails quite rarely and most of these failures can be controlled if you be careful and take care of them in the proper way.
Before the ways of preventing the dental implant failure is discussed, you should consider knowing the probable causes and the symptoms associated with the implant failure. Just take a look.
Causes of Dental Implant Failure
The dental implants may fail for a variety of reasons and the most common, yet the most preventable ones include the infection failure and the bone loss.
The peri-implantitis happens to be a kind of an infection that forms inside the gums and around the implants. This infection happens because of the poor dental hygiene after a dental implant procedure. This can result in further implant failure and bone loss.
It can also be a scenario that the implant is failing to integrate with the existing jawbone. Patients who have low jaw-bone density often face this. This is also quite common in patients who experience a trauma post an implant procedure.
Symptoms that You Contact the Doctor
After undergoing a dental implant procedure, you must understand how the region surrounding the implant feels. The implant is a foreign object after all and initially you may feel odd about it as your bite adjusts and the area feels normal after a few days.
Nevertheless, anything that is even a bit more than that should be the situation when you see the dentist.
To help you identify the tell-tale signs of implant failure, here some of them are enlisted.
A great amount of pain (such pain is not associated with the healing of the implant)
Irritated, puffy and swollen eyes
Implant feeling wobbly
Early and Late Unsuccessful Teeth Implant Phases
The early stages of the implanted teeth that are unsuccessful occur within 3-4 months after the surgery. The dental hygienist must use proper protocols including the prevention of the overheated bone, adherence to sterility, stable insertion, right flap design and ensuring to place the implant where there is sufficient bone. Remember that not all the implants can integrate with the jaw successfully even if yours is an experienced dentist and all proper measurements are taken.
The short-term components that can lead to failure of the dental implants are –
Infections existing in the mouth
Deprived blood supply to the area of the implant
Not giving the implants ample time to integrate
Shifting or moving the implant at the time of healing
The later dental implant failure can start even after a decade after the surgery and the factors involved include the following-
Extreme stress on the implants
Lack of bone
Clenching and grinding of the teeth
Lack of the gum tissue
Radiation to the neck and the head areas
Poor oral hygiene
Excessive food impacted between the implants
Tips to Prevent Dental Implant Failure
In making your dental implant surgery, learning to adhere to the right oral hygiene routine can make a huge difference. So if you are thinking of going for a dental implant, here are some of the tips that you should keep in mind. Just take a look.
Ensure You are a Good Candidate for Dental Implants – Not everyone is suitable for the dental implants. For the dental implant surgery to be a success you must be a good candidate for the dental implants. The ideal candidate must have sufficient bone tissue, healthy gums and be in generally good health. For supporting the implant post, the adequate bone tissues and gums are mandatory. Moreover, dental implants may not be ideal for the too young as well. They may not have developed their facial and jaw bones completely.
Stay Away from Smoking – You should be quitting to smoke immediately if you are thinking about dental implants. In fact, before going for the implants you should try to stay away from smoking because of the cigarette’s harmful chemicals. Smoking not only has ill-effects on the overall health but it can also delay the recovery after implant placement.
Try to Avoid Peri-Implantitis– Peri-Implantitis is one of the most common causes why implants fail. It occurs when the bone tissues and gums surrounding the implant get inflamed leading to failure of implants and bone loss. Dentist’s errors are cited as on the most common reasons of this happening which include failure to remove plaque and bacteria form the implant site, using excessive cement for the placement and malformations of gum tissues. That is why you should check the patient reviews before opting for a dental surgeon for your implant placement.
Prevent Teeth Grinding – The teeth clenching can seem of no harm, but it causes major damages to the new implants. The excessive activity of the masticatory muscles, when the teeth are being clenched, stands in the way of the implant and the jawbone bonding which is essential for the stability of the implant.
Stick to Regular Oral Care Hygiene – This goes without saying that to maintain your implants you must stick to regular oral care hygiene. Brushing the teeth twice and flossing must be adhered to religiously every day apart from visits to the dental care chamber at least twice a year.
A Comprehensive Guide On Dental Clinic Set Up
The dental profession is booming and becoming a very popular career choice amongst many enthusiastic individuals all over the world. Once you have completed your dental studies, you can think about setting up your own dental clinic. However, there are a few important aspects you need to know about dental clinic set up. Setting up a dental clinic is not just as easy as finding a place and setting up the tools and equipment’s. There are a lot of other things which need to be taken into consideration as well.
Dental Clinic Set Up
Here Is A Complete Guide On Dental Clinic Set Up
- Master Certain Dental Skills – The reputation of a dental clinic is determined by the dentist. One should have a good degree before you start with a dental clinic. You will also need to gain experience and master certain dental skills, such as CD, tooth extractions, FPD, RTC, etc.
- Investing In The Right Places – It can be a very alluring thought to invest most of your funds into setting up a fancy dental clinic. You might be tempted into decorating your dental clinic with posh interiors which would be sure to attract potential customers. However, it is important to invest your money sensibly. Instead of investing in superfluous activities such as posh interiors and decoration for your clinic, you should invest in good manpower, the right kind of skilled, experienced staff, and great equipment’s. In the end, it is these things that will matter the most to patients.
- Location- The location of your dental clinic is an important factor while setting up the clinic. You must finalize the location which is prime or has a good footfall. Accessibility also an important factor while you decide to choose the location of your clinic.
- Continue Expanding Your Knowledge -When it comes to gaining more knowledge, you can never say ‘I have had enough’. If you are thinking about investing in a dental clinic set up, you must be prepared to keep on studying and gaining new knowledge and skills all your life. Make sure that you attend conferences regularly, learn about new technology and skills related to your profession, and are constantly updating your knowledge.
- Fixing Charges Various For Dental Procedures – When you are setting up a dental clinic, there are a few fundamental rules you will need to decide. You will need to fix the charges for the various dental procedures after calculating the total investment you have made in such a way that you will be able to break even in the shortest possible time, and you can also have a certain profit margin. You will also need to consider various other factors such as the salaries of the staff working for you, the cost of the setup and the various other charges of your clinic, and the locality where you have your dental clinic set up.
- Invest In Marketing – When you are setting up a new dental clinic in your chosen area, you must realize that a lot of potential customers cannot come your way simply because they are not aware that your set up exists. Invest time, energy and money into proper means of advertising and marketing. This means setting up advertisement banners, billboards, distribution of pamphlets, marketing your brand on social media, etc. Social media has become one of the most popular and economical methods you can use to spread the word of your dental clinic set up far and wide, so if you need to, take the help of a professional social media marketing manager and get the right kind of marketing done for your brand. Participating in online forums, social media activity is yet another way to introduce your clinic. You can also organize free dental check-up to popularize your dental clinic.
Dental Clinic Set Up
When investing in a dental clinic set up, these are a few things you need to take into consideration; you will also have to maintain a high level of professional standard by providing some of the best services and facilities which is expected by the dental patients. Keeping the above mentioned points as a key area of consideration will help you in setting up a good dental clinic.
Take Right Type Of Eye Test To Check Your Eye Power!
These days, eye exams or eye test is one of the important processes that should be conducted to assess the health of your eye. Both children and adults must undergo regular eye checkup to ensure the proper vision of the eye. The eye test helps you to find the issues in your eye and solve them at the earlier stages.
The Optometrists and Ophthalmologists make use of various tests and techniques to diagnose the problems. The eye test ranges from simple to complex depending on the severity of the problem. Go through this article to know the different types of eye test that are undergone by the doctors.
Types Of Eye Test Or Eye Exams
Mentioned below are major eye tests that are conducted by the doctors to diagnose and treat eye issues:
The cover test is one of the simplest and common tests that are done for all ages of well-being to analyze eye power. The main aim of the test is to check the working of the eyes. The test tells if the eyes are working together and are in coordination with each other or not. While undergoing the cover test you are supposed to focus on small objects that are kept in the room by covering an eye alternatively. This test is repeated for the nearby object. With the help of this test, the doctor can come to know which eye has less power or eye strain.
Visual Acuity Tests
Visual Acuity Test is the primary eye test that is conducted to measure the sharpness of your vision. This test is performed with the projected eye chart to check the long-distance vision and hand-held charts to test the short distance vision power of your eye.
Color Blindness Test
Color blindness test is one of the screening tests that are done to check the color vision of your eye. This eye test helps to detect the hereditary color vision deficiencies and health problems that may affect your color vision.
Dilated Pupillary Exam
During this eye test, the doctor makes use of the special drops called dilates to expand the pupil in your eye. So that he can check your retina to find out the disease.
The Retinoscopy test will be suggested by your doctor when you need the prescription for an eyeglass. During the retinoscopy eye test, the room lights will be dimmed and you have to keep your target on the large objects. Generally, the doctors will ask you to focus on the ‘E’ that is in the eye chart then he turns on the light at your eye and keeps the lenses in front of your eyes. This helps the doctor to decide the right type of lens that suits your eye power.
This type of eye test is done with the help of sound waves to have the complete picture of your eye. The doctor views the image to identify and treat the tumors, cataracts or bleeding of the eye. This is usually done before the cataract surgery.
Eye Movements Testing
Some people suffer from less mobility in eyes which means that they are unable to follow the objects quickly. In such a case, you can take the eye movement testing called an Ocular Motility test. The doctor holds your head and makes you view the target with the slow movement for smooth eye movement checkup. While taking the quick eye movement test you tend to move your eyes forth and back with two targets that are kept apart from each other.
Thus, these are the major types of eye test that are conducted by Optometrists. So, discuss the difficulties faced in your vision with the doctor to take the right type of test to solve them accordingly. Undergo Eye test Regularly and Maintain Eye Health To Have Better Vision!