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How to mitigate Legionella outbreaks in cooling towers of large buildings?



Maybe you have heard about legionella bacteria, Legionnaires disease, or Legionellosis but you are not entirely sure of the risks involved when it comes to the water systems of your building. An individual infected with this disease may develop a very serious pneumonia which can be lethal in some cases. According to recent studies, only in developed countries there are thousands of ourbreaks every year in which 10 per cent of people actually dies. Also, in 90 per cent of the cases, these outbreaks were perfectly preventable.

In an attempt to aid building managers and owners with handling cooling towers, we are sharing five aspects to consider when it comes to the assistance of mitigating legionella outbreaks in water systems of large buildings.


What exactly is Legionnaire disease?

There are more than twenty five related species of Legionella bacteria in nature. They are naturally present in rivers, streams and lakes and are relatively harmless. The bacteria group responsible for Legionella illness, and the most lethal one, is Legionella pneumophila. It actually becomes a real health concern when it can be found in our water systems.


Why is it a health issue in our water systems and not in nature?

Once the bacteria species becomes airborne, evaporation of water in cooling towers, it has the capability to move through air currents and therefore infect people near the source of contamination. After the infection has happened, a pneumonia can be developed.


Who is at risk?

All building managers and owners with cooling towers or even with evaporative condensers for their spas/whirlpools, misters, ornamental fountains and humidifiers are at risk.


Is there anything we can do to mitigate these risks?

Yes, here are five aspects to consider when it comes to mitigating the risks:


  1. Evaluation of the water system: does the building have one or more of the items listed earlier as a risk factor (misters, cooling towers, fountains, etc.)?
  • Identify potable water systems
  • Location of the systems
  • How the water is processed and received
  • Identify potential risks with the systems water flow – process flow diagram


  1. Water treatment program
  • Get a water treatment professional to put in place a water treatment program: Recurring water treatment is needed. Bear in mind that several high performing water disinfection tools are available to avoid recurring and expensive chemical cost.
  • Guarantee there is no stagnation of water – Legionella grows in warm waters between 22 to 40 degrees. Guarantee that there are no dead-arms in the water system and make sure there is an adequate water recirculation.
  • Make sure that the plan includes a contingency plan in case of outbreak.
  • Control and communication: make sure you share the plan with the team and assign clear responsibility of tasks.


  1. Limit the spread of mist
  • Various solutions available on the market can assist in decreasing the mist spray from travelling from the water systems.


  1. Monitor and control
  • Monitor locations in key areas
  • Establish a schedule to take samples: there are several easy-to-use tools to monitor the bacteria amounts in water. Make sure to include a Legionella testing every month of operation.
  • Run a legionella risk assessment regularly.


  1. Request help
  • There are several water consultants you can get in touch with in order to assist you. They can develop a plan adapted to your building water system.

Utilising temperature control

The main method utilised to monitor and control the risk from Legionnaires disease is indeed water temperature control.

Water services must be operated at temperatures that will prevent Legionella growth:

  • Hot water storage cylinders needs to store water at 60°C or more
  • Hot water must be distributed at 50°C or more (thermostatic mixer valves have to be fitted as close as realistically possible to outlets, where a scald risk is in fact identified).
  • Cold water must be stored and distributed below 20°C.

A competent person should routinely have a look, check, inspect and clean the system, in accordance with regulations of the risk assessment.

You need to identify ‘sentinel’ outlets (closest and furthest to each cylinder or tank) for monthly checking of the distribution temperatures. You need to also check the water storage cylinder temperatures every month at least once and cold water tank temperatures once at least every 6 months.

Stagnant water does favour Legionella growth. To reduce the risk you need to remove dead legs/dead ends in pipes, flush out rarely used outlets (including taps and showerheads) at least once per week and clean and de-scale shower heads as well as hoses at least quarterly. Cold-water storage tanks need to be cleaned regularly and water must be drained from hot water cylinders to check for potential debris or signs of corrosion.

Design systems to reduce or minimise Legionella growth, by:

  • keeping pipes as short and direct as realistically possible;
  • adequately insulating pipe-work as well as tanks;
  • utilising materials that don’t encourage the growth of Legionella bacteria;
  • preventing and avoiding contamination, eg by fitting tanks with lids as well as insect screens.

Additional monitoring controls

Water samples must be analysed for Legionella bacteria periodically in order to demonstrate that bacteria counts are acceptable and low enough. The frequency needs to be determined by level of risk, and of course in accordance with the risk assessment.


Other monitoring control systems

Other monitoring methods to control Legionella bacteria growth include silver and copper ionisation as well as biocide treatments (like chlorine dioxide). To guarantee that they remain efficient their application will require suitable assessment as part of the general water treatment program including an adequate installation, maintenance as well as monitoring.


Balance of Nature Evaluation – How Do These Supplements Rank?



With just how many products are out there, you have to be careful that the nutritional complement you select is the best one. Remember that nothing is magic tablet and can cause immediate benefits. In this instance, we needed to complete analysis Balance of Nature to ensure you are obtaining the health advantages the complement claims.

What You Must Know Before You Get A Complement

We like to stay that balanced life style possibilities are important in living a long, balanced life. We may actually move as saying that balanced possibilities can prevent diseases, such as cardiac illness and particular cancers.

However, we shall never recommend a product, program, complement, supplement, or nutrient and say it is effective at stopping or curing any disease. To take action could break FDA and FTC guidelines.

Some of the balanced life style possibilities contain preventing smoking, drinking alcohol to surplus, recreational medicine use, and vaping. You can even embrace things like frequent exercise, a healthy diet, and ample sleep for fix and recovery.

It’s also advisable to give attention to ingesting more fruits and vegetables. Depending on age and intercourse, federal recommendations suggest that people eat at the very least 1½ to 2 glasses per day of fruit and 2 to 3 glasses per day of vegetables within a healthy ingesting pattern.

The niche we are considering here, Balance of Nature, cites the advised total as 9 – 11 amounts per day.

About Balance of Nature

Regardless of which guideline you choose to follow, several people find it demanding to obtain enough new create inside their diet.

This really is where Balance of Nature comes in. The organization is U.S. based and creates, markets, and carries nutritional services and products that address these deficiencies. At once, they provide a soluble fiber item for those who knowledge intestinal health problems.

The business enterprise founder is Dr. Douglas Howard, in accordance with Balance of Nature’s internet site, is “an National doctor, medical researcher, and global lecturer’who ‘specializes in phytonutrition.”

His work focuses on delivering services and products that have real food, full fruits, and that want to provide you with the thing you need in terms of nutrition.

Nevertheless, we shall examine or disprove the effectiveness of these items and whether they’ve results in your body.

Balance Of Nature: Full Wellness System

The Full Wellness System item point features three services and products: Nature Fresh fruit products, Greens combination, and Fibre & Spice. Most of these are created with full foods.

In that type of services and products, you’ll find a diet brand that features the materials, but we shall cover these at length below.

From this technique point you’ll find the following benefits:

  • Five amounts of fruits and vegetables
  • Antioxidants
  • Taking balance of soluble and insoluble fibers.

The products include full, real, non-GMO ingredients, without any carbs, artificial sweeteners, synthetics, extracts, or fillers. You will find sixteen fruits and fifteen vegetables in the Fruits and Greens products. All products will also be vegan and packed in vegan solution caps.

However, the system is more than simply these three services and products, as Wellness Care Training is an essential portion on the site.

At once, the organization highlights “accountability” as important to conference your proper nutritional goals.

Balance of Nature gives Wellness Training Companies at number extra demand, saying that the company is approximately help, accountability, and communication. They state to aid you in your quest for a wholesome lifestyle.

The teaching company can be meant to inspire you to simply accept obligation, support you set targets, and follow through to your progress.

However, as you read on, you will see there can be still another purpose Balance of Nature offers that Wellness Care Training “benefit.”

Critical Substances In Balance of Nature Products

All materials in the Balance of Nature array of products are vegan. However, the Fruits and Greens products use veggie capsules.

Nature Fresh fruit

The complete fruits food products include aloe vera, apple, blueberry, blueberry, cranberry, cherry, grape, grapefruit, orange, mango, lime, blueberry, papaya, raspberry, blood, and tomato.

Nature Greens

The greens item contains broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, cayenne pepper, celery, garlic, kale, onion, shiitake mushroom, spinach, soybean, wheatgrass, yam, and zucchini.

Unlike most other products, the Balance of Nature’s Fruits and Greens materials are stated in alphabetical order. However, we didn’t find that especially valuable, as it does not show which materials are probably the most prevalent in the formulas.

Other full fruit and vegetable products and sprays also have a proprietary mixture of materials, as opposed to record particular amounts. However, materials are usually stated in descending buy by weight. Balance of Nature appears to ignore that typical convention.

Fibre & Tart

The Fibre & Tart intestinal complement contains psyllium husks, flaxseed, apple, and a proprietary mixture of twelve herbs, that is unlike other intestinal products such as Hyperbiotics PRO-15 Probiotics.

The twelve spice item blend in Balance of Nature’s Fibre & Tart is allspice, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, cardamom, fennel seed, fenugreek, cinnamon, mustard, nutmeg, and turmeric.

What About Soy?

Even though soy is one of the most prevalent vegan and veggie ingredients, it’s not at all something that most products contain inside their nutritional information.

In this instance, soy is definitely an allergen and suppress a nature client from purchasing the product. Some Full Food products contain soy, therefore when you yourself have an allergy to it, watch out!

Balance of Nature Dosages

  • Nature Fruits & Greens: The advised dose to stay balanced and have significantly more power is 3 fruit products and 3 vegetable products daily. The organization also implies you are able to get each nutritional complement as often as you’ll need it through the day.
  • Fibre & Tart: The suggested dose is 2 heaping scoops twice day-to-day, ideally each day and evening.

The idea is that you have to count less on full ingredients, your diet, fresh fruit nutritional elements, and other vitamins.

However, the complete process is extremely tough, particularly as it requires paying a bundle, power, and getting plenty of pills. It would be a greater answer to have a powdered sort nutritional complement, but this provider does not present it.

Natural Benefits Of The Harmony Of Character Program

The Full Program item point provides more than twenty meals of fruits and veggies daily, meeting or exceeding the USDA suggested daily requirements.

True Food In A Supplement

Fruits and veggies are section of a healthier diet. Vegetables are usually lower in fat and calories and are a great source of vitamins, such as for instance fiber, folic p, potassium, and other vitamins and minerals.

At the same time frame, fruits are a great source of fiber, vitamins, vitamins, and antioxidants. The

The natural great things about fruits and veggies are beyond dispute. The one caveat, however, is that drugs may not be the equivalent of real fruits and vegetables.

In regards to the fiber and spice combination, the vitamins in that supplement can help to keep your digestive system healthy and treat things such as annoying bowel problem, constipation, and diarrhea.

Fibre is normally in food, but many don’t receive the required levels. Having it in the proper execution of drugs will help solve this matter and really make a difference in your digestive health.

How Do Harmony Of Character Products and services Conduct – The States Versus The Fact

We’re firm believers that twenty meals daily of fruits and veggies are healthy. We don’t match Harmony of Natures’statements and assertions to the effect.

The fact Harmony of Character doesn’t utilize the USDA Organic close makes us believe that their claims are not supported.

We think there’s a cause of the bad evaluations that this device seems to receive.

Harmony of Nature’s a reaction to this matter is that “we do every thing it requires to create the top product. Number shortcuts. We go beyond the USDA Organic seal.”

Each goes so far as to say that, “Our products and services contain produce developed, treated, refined, and certified in a way that meets and meets certain requirements for utilizing the USDA Organic seal. Harmony of Character chooses never to use this close on their brands since this close doesn’t approach Harmony of Nature’s ideas and criteria for organic.

Though you will find minimal client evaluations on Amazon, they’re split about equally, excellent and bad. Solution performance appears to get excellent marks.

What The others Are Expressing About These Products and services

On a single give, the taste of the Fibre & Tart was criticized. Other evaluations were very worried about their business practices. The concerns predicated on the declare that Character Fruits and Character Veggies contain healthy amounts of vitamins and are basically the same thing as ingesting the suggested meals of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Nevertheless, within our research, we discovered that evaluations on their site were off the maps with people attributing almost marvelous recoveries to the products.

Some people appear to indicate that using these drugs can solve the need for vitamins and could even cure disease. Yet, there’s number real information on the diet facts variety on the website.

Our concerns with Harmony of Character have to do with their testimonials and possible claims in their YouTube videos. These include Medical practitioner Douglas Howard saying that the merchandise can prevent and cure life style diseases. If that were the situation, the maintain could be supported by real evidence, but there’s none of this.

Throughout our research for this information, we found astonishing testimonials of the product’s efficacy. We discovered that they were possibly the most extreme bad posts of any item we’ve reviewed.

Our Judgment

It appears as though a number of the website evaluations were intended to confuse those searching for full food products that are backed by diet authorities and scientists.

TINA (Truth in Advertising) and the self-governing NAD (National Marketing Department) described Harmony of Character to the FTC for structure-function claims in their advertising/testimonials. Testimonies proposed that Harmony of Character products and services could prevent and or cure life style disorders such as for instance cancer, diabetes, and other illnesses.

Keep in mind too that number supplement is approved or administered by the Food and Medicine Administration (FDA).

Possible Area Results

You can find number frequently described negative effects of Harmony of Character products and services that we could determine within our research.

We do give the following warns:

People with a soy sensitivity must steer clear of the Veggies full food supplement for clear reasons.

The psyllium husks in Fibre and Tart may cause digestive dilemmas such as for instance flatulence and gas. We recommend beginning with a below suggested dose and titrating up as you build-up a tolerance.

Best Areas To Get Harmony Of Character

The Harmony of Character website is the primary place to buy these products and their site offers the Preferred Customer Program (see under in Pricing).

Still, the merchandise will also be on Amazon in limited materials, where you could also check out other reviews.


You can buy these products as a Preferred Customer or as a Retail Customer.

In line with the website, you are able to receive the following benefits by selecting preferred process:

For just $24.95, you will receive wholesale prices or less on every buy you produce and computerized shipments.

You may also receive your own Wellness Instructor to assist you in reaching success.

There is number responsibility to the length of time you stay a Preferred Customer. When there is reliability, they guarantee the adjusted price you start with.

  • By purchasing preferred, you may be given a 30-day money-back guarantee on your own preliminary order.
  • Offer Per Package: 30-day supply includes 17.6 oz of Fibre & Tart and 90 capsules of Fruits & Veggies each.
  • None the less, the Fruits and Veggies are only bought together, at $89.95. If you are a Preferred Customer you will get them for $69.95.
  • On one other give, the Fibre & Tart is $69.95 or $49.95 with the Preferred Customer option.
  • The Full Program (Fruits, Veggies, and Fibre & Spice) is $159.95 or $109.95 once you select the Preferred Customer option.

If you are searching for alternatives to Harmony of Character products and services, you may consider Gundry MD Crucial Reds and/or Primal Plants.

Harmony Of Character Evaluation: In Summary

Though Harmony of Character adopts good aspect as to their techniques and manufacturing in their FAQ part, they don’t note if their ability is cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practices) certified by an unbiased third party. We believe that this is anything you need to generally research for just about any supplement you are considering.

The Preferred Customer solution does include personal health coaching, but beware as it also involves continuing monthly deliveries.

Some customers also protest the auto-ship program is hard to cancel. These dilemmas were described to the BBB (Better Organization Bureau). Customer care is apparently a concern as well.

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